Children's ABCs chewable vitamins
Multi-flavor Multi-vitamin ensuring a full complex of vitamins for children
Children ABC's Multi Vitamins are multi-flavor chewables that provide a group of organic nutrients that are essential in small quantities for a child's normal metabolism, growth, and physical well being. Children's bodies use vitamins to make substances that are vital participants in many biochemical reactions in their cells. These vital nutrients must be obtained through diet since they are synthesized by the body in inadequate amounts.
This is a question that has many answers and needs additional research. First, it is unlikely that most children will consume the wide variety of foods necessary to give them a full complex of vitamins. Secondly, it is difficult to determine the vitamin content of a varied diet. Many factors can effect vitamin content, including the soil foods are grown in, transport time, cooking, freezing and processing. Thirdly, there is always a question of bioavailability. This depends on numerous factors, including age, health of the gastrointestinal system and how vitamins are bonded in the food.
Each capsule contains:
Vitamin A was recognized as the first fat-soluble vitamin in 1913. The amount of vitamin A (RDA) for infants is based on the amount of vitamin A retinol found in human milk. The RDA for adults is based on adequate blood levels and liver stores, adjusted for differences in average body size.
Globally, it is estimated that 250 million children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, the most frequent cause of blindness in developing countries. Even a subclinical vitamin A deficiency increases a child's morbidity and mortality. Usually the earliest signs of vitamin A deficiency is impaired vision due to loss of visual pigments. Vitamin A deficiency may manifest as night blindness or nyctalopia. Subsequent deficiencies lead to failure of system functions, reduction in osteoclast numbers, anemia, loss of bone, impaired immuno-competence and keratinization of the mucous membranes that line the respiratory tract, alimentary canal, urinary tract, skin and epithelium of the eyes.
Most of these vitamin A deficiencies result from the lack of adequate intake of preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoid.
The top ten food sources of vitamin A are carrots, vegetable soups, leafy greens, spinach, green salad, orange juice, sweet potatoes, beef stew, mixed vegetables, and cantaloupe.
Scientists first recognized Vitamin D as the component of "good fats" that cured rickets. Vitamin D is recognized as the "sunshine vitamin". Vitamin D is actually a hormone produced in the body by the photolytic action of ultraviolet light on the skin. Modest exposure to sunlight is usually sufficient for most people to produce their own vitamin D. However, many children spend their time indoors or live in northern latitudes, or their parents are concerned about over exposure to sun and possible skin cancers. For such individuals, they must obtain vitamin D from their diet or take a vitamin supplement.
Vitamin D plays an essential metabolic role in the maintenance of calcium and phosphorous homeostasis. In addition, Vitamin D appears to have metabolic roles in cell differentiation and the maintenance of membranes. Vitamin D also plays a role in the function of several organs including skin, muscle, the pancreas, nerves, the parathyroid gland and the immune system.
Vitamin D3 occurs naturally in animal products. Vitamin D3 is found in smaller quantities and in variable amounts in butter, cream, egg yokes and liver. Almost all milk sold in the U.S. is fortified with vitamin D3. In addition, vitamin D3 is also added to some butter, soymilk, certain cereals and all infant formulas. Some oily fish such as mackerel, salmon and sardines contain small amounts of this essential nutrient. While mushrooms and dark leafy greens contain some vitamin D3, in general, plant foods are low in vitamin D3.
Since many children may not consume some of the regular sources of vitamin D in their diet, supplementation can serve as a security.
Vitamin E was discovered in the 1920s as a fat-soluble factor to prevent fetal death. Vitamin E was named tocopherol from the Greek "tokos" (childbirth) and pherein (to bear). Vitamin E is recognized for its fundamental role in the normal metabolism of all cells. Vitamin E is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell.
Vitamin E performs this function through its ability to reduce radicals to harmless metabolites; a process referred to as free radical "scavenging".
The need for vitamin E depends in part on the amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed. Only plants synthesize Vitamin E, therefore, Vitamin E is found primarily in plant products. The richest sources of vitamin E are plant oils.
It has been estimated that nearly two thirds of the vitamin E in the typical American diet is supplied by salad oils, margarine, and shortenings. Because vitamin E is insoluble in water, it is not lost by cooking, but can be lost by deep fat frying. This is of primary concern since many of the fast foods children consume are deep-fried.
Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) was the first of the B vitamins to be elucidated. Vitamin B1 plays essential metabolic roles in carbohydrate metabolism and neural functions. Thiamin is widely distributed in many foods, most of which contain only low concentrations. While the richest sources of Thiamin are yeast and liver, cereal grains compose the most important source in the human diet. Although whole grains are typically rich in thiamin, most of that is removed in milling and refining. Heat, oxidation and ionizing radiation also destroy it.
A thiamin deficiency is characterized by anorexia and weight-loss, as well as cardiac and neurologic signs.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) was first recognized in 1870 as the yellow-green fluorescent pigment in milk. It was named Riboflavin in 1935. Riboflavin is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids, and to support antioxidant protection. A Riboflavin deficiency becomes manifest only after several months of deprivation. The early symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency include photophobia, lacrimation, burning and itching of the eyes, loss of visual acuity and soreness and burning of the lips, mouth and tongue. Subsequent symptoms of Riboflavin deficiency include cheilosis (fissuring of the lips), angular stomatitis (cracks in the skin at the corners of the mouth) and a purple, swollen tongue.
Niacin is the generic term for nicotinamide (niacinamide). Niacin was discovered when thousands of people developed pellagra as a result of eating a diet that consisted primarily of cornmeal. Foods derived from plants, particularly grains, contain niacin that is covalently bound with small peptides and carbohydrates that are not released well during digestion unless it is rendered available by alkaline hydrolysis. Thus, the Central American tradition of soaking maize (corn) in limewater before preparing tortillas developed to increase the availability of niacin.
Niacin can be synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, but if the dietary intake is low, a deficiency can occur. Niacin is found in many foods of animal source.
A niacin deficiency in humans first manifests as muscular weakness, anorexia, indigestion and skin eruptions. A more severe deficiency of niacin results in dermatitis, dementia and diarrhea.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is involved in all reactions in the metabolism of amino acids. Vitamin B6 is also needed for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters, serotonin, epinephrine, norephedrine, and y-aminobutymic acid, the vasodilator and gastric secretagogue histamine and the porphyrin precursors of heme. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is required for the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin, the release of glucose for glycogen, the biosynthesis of sphingolipids in the myelin sheaths of nerve cells and in the modulation of steroid hormone receptors.
Vitamin B6, like niacin, is widely distributed in foods, occurring in greatest concentration in meats, whole grain products, vegetables and nuts. Like niacin, due to its covalent bonding, its bio-availability in plant foods is quite low, while animal sources are more readily available.
Deprivation of Vitamin B6 leads to symptoms that manifest themselves as weakness, sleeplessness, peripheral neuropathies, cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis and impaired cell-mediated immunity.
Folate is the name for a family of vitamins discovered in the course of investigations of the causes of nutritional anemias.
Folate is essential for the formation of both red and white blood cells in the bone marrow and for their maturation. Folate also functions as enzyme co-substrates in the many reactions of the metabolism of amino acids and is essential in many important roles of metabolism.
Folates occur in a variety of foods of both plant and animal origins. Liver, mushrooms and green leafy vegetables (especially spinach, asparagus and broccoli) are rich sources of Folate. However, the bioavailability from foods varies widely, ranging from 25% to 50%. In addition, the reduced forms of Folate in foods are easily oxidized and losses of 50% to 90% typically occur during storage, cooking or processing at high temperatures. In general, the bio-availability of folate in foods are typically about half those of the purified vitamin supplement form.
Deficiencies of this vitamin result in impaired biosynthesis of DNA and RNA, thus reducing cell division. This may effect red blood cells, leukocytes and epithelial cells of the stomach, intestine, vagina and uterine cervix. This manifests itself as anemia, dermatotogic lesions and poor growth.
Vitamin B12 was isolated from liver extract in 1948, the last vitamin to be identified. Vitamin B12 was the extrinsic factor found to be effective in the treatment of pernicious anemia. Vitamin B12 plays a major role in the metabolism of propionate, amino acids and single carbons. These roles of Vitamin B12 are essential for normal function in the metabolism of all cells, especially for those of the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and nervous system.
The richest food sources of Vitamin B12 are liver, kidney, milk, and eggs, fish, cheese, and cooked sea vegetables.
Individuals consuming strictly vegetarian diets, particularly after 5 to 6 years, typically show lower levels of vitamin B12 unless they take vitamin B12 in the form of a vitamin supplement.
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 lead to impaired cell division, particularly of the rapidly dividing cells of the bone marrow and intestinal mucosa.
Vitamin C is an essential daily nutrient because it cannot be synthesized by the body. Vitamin C can be found only in fruit and vegetable foods and is highest in fresh, uncooked foods. Vitamin C is one of the least stable vitamins and is easily lost during cooking in water. Vitamin C was first isolated from lemons in 1932, but Vitamin C enjoys a long history of preventing and relieving scurvy, a condition that is readily reversible with 100 mg. of Vitamin C a day. Historically, this minimal dose was obtained from lemons and limes, powdered rose hips, acerola cherries or spruce needles. Vitamin C also has the reputation for preventing and treating the common cold and reducing the effects of some allergy-producing substances.
The more scientific research looks at Vitamin C, the more important it becomes in maintaining and restoring optimum health.
Vitamin C plays a significant role maintaining collagen, a protein necessary for the formation of connective tissue in skin, ligaments and bones.
Vitamin C is as a powerful antioxidant. In addition to scavenging free radicals, vitamin C can regenerate already-oxidized substances such as iron and copper to their original forms. Vitamin C protects the brain and spinal cord from destruction by free radicals.
Vitamin C is necessary for stimulating the immune system, activating the production of inferon and suppressing viruses and infections, including herpes, hepatitis, polio, encephalitis, measles and pneumonia.
The body's disease-fighting white blood cells depend on vitamin C for their normal function which includes protecting against bacteria such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, staphylococcus and typhoid fever.
Vitamin C has been shown to lower blood cholesterol in patients with arteriosclerosis. The serum cholesterol level in individuals has been reduced 35% - 40% by vitamin C.
Vitamin C is helpful in all stressful situations.
Research has shown that the tissue requirements for vitamin C go up under conditions of increased metabolism. In addition, large concentrations of vitamin C are found in the adrenal glands, which release epinephrine and norephinephine during times of stress.
Vitamin C plays a critical role with other essential nutrients:
Signs of vitamin C deficiency include shortness of breath, impaired digestion, hair that easily splits and breaks, hair that breaks underneath the skin and coils, dry and tangled hair, skin disorders, tendency to bruising, nosebleeds, weakened enamel or dentine, swollen or painful joints, anemia, lowered resistance to infections, and slow healing of wounds and fractures.
Even a minimal deficiency of vitamin C can cause gum disorders, allowing bacteria and toxic substances
into the tissues causing periodontal disease. Severe deficiencies of vitamin C result in scurvy: skin
becomes rough, dry and scaly. Severe deficiencies of vitamin C may also result in bone ends becoming
softened and malformed. Also, painful and impaired growth and fractures may appear.